What is Urbanization
Urbanization refers to the process which brings about a dynamic change in the settlement pattern. This change basically takes place in population, size, structure and personnel area. Out of the total 121.08 crore people in India, 37,71,06,125 people live in cities, which is 31.1% of the total country’s population. The urban population of 19,54,89,200 males and 18,16,16,925 females resides in the country.
Cities and metros have their own importance in the civilization, culture and development of any country. The future of India is related to the development of cities and metropolitan areas along with rural development. Generally, the migration of people from the rural environment to the city is called urbanization. Sociologist Anderson believes that urbanization involves not only the migration of population to cities, but also changes in the attitudes, beliefs, values and behavior patterns of those who move. The use of the term ‘urban’ in the demographic context emphasizes the size of the population, the density of the population, and the working tendency of the inhabitants, while in other sociological meanings it focuses on inequality, impersonality, interdependence and quality of life.
Looks like a sixth city
like wearing morning dress
quiet – exposed ship, larynx
Dome, Theater and Temple
all shining sparkles
Come true in clean air. “
Impact of Urbanization
This is a translation of William Wordsworth’s poem titled ‘The City’, which describes the wonderful beauty and pure clean environment of a city, but the increasing urbanization in the present times has led to pollution, overcrowding, disorder, unemployment. It has given rise to many problems like poverty, disease, accidents, crime, sexual exploitation, violence, communication and traffic control, stress, unrest. Despite all this, cities and metros play a very important role in the building of any nation.
People in cities are generally engaged in non-agricultural activities; Such as – construction, commerce, trade, job and in various professions. Urban communities are large in size. Here the population density is high (more than 1,000 persons per square mile. People in urban areas are surrounded by man-made environment and cut off from nature. Urban community is more heterogeneous and stratified on the basis of class. Mobility of urban areas rural In urban areas, relations between people are impersonal, casual, contractual and short-lived.
Effects of Urbanization on family relations.
Urbanization not only affects the family structure
Not only does it affect the inter-family relations as well as the work performed by the family. In the urban areas of India, neither caste nor religion is given much importance in the day-to-day interactions between people. The people of the cities do not strictly follow the caste norms.
Cooperation relations, marriage relations, social relations and business relations in cities are different from those in villages. The townspeople depend more on neighbour, acquaintances and their office colleagues for social and economic assistance on various occasions than on their relatives and relatives. The people of the city participate in such events, in which people of many castes, religions and different civilizations and cultures are involved.
Benefits of Urbanization.
The position of women in cities is better than in villages. Due to being educated, the women of the cities are not only aware of their economic, social and political rights, but they also exercise these rights to avoid humiliation and exploitation. The spread of education in urban areas has led to an increase in the age of marriage and a decrease in the birth rate, but it has not brought any revolutionary change in the nature of traditional arranged marriages with dowry. Urban women seek new opportunities as well as security. They also want to enjoy the new freedom while retaining their old values. Cases of divorce and remarriage are more common among urban women. From political point of view also urban women are more active. They actively participate in contesting elections at every level. The women of the cities occupy important positions and their ideology is also free.
Urbanization provides more opportunities for social mobility. In today’s era the professional reputation of a person mostly depends on his education. The higher the education, the higher is the possibility of achieving a high professional reputation, because urban communities provide good educational opportunities, so there are more opportunities for status and mobility.
Problems with Urbanization.
There are also many problems associated with urbanization. Not getting enough houses to live in cities is a serious problem. The government, industrialists, capitalists, entrepreneurs, contractors and landlords have been unable to match the housing needs of the poor and middle class people. One-fourth of the population of the largest cities of India lives in slums. Lakhs of people have to pay exorbitant rents.
In our profit-oriented economy, private building owners and colony settlers see less profit in building houses for the poor and middle class people than the wealthy and upper middle class people. As a result, the available houses are overcrowded in spite of paying higher rents in the cities. About half of the population lives in poor houses. Along with the problem of housing, the unemployed or low-income people in the cities also have to deal with the problems of food and clothing.
The problem of crowding and apathy of the people is a product of urban life. Some houses are so crowded that five to six people live in a room in them. Overcrowding encourages deviant behavior and spreads diseases. Apart from this, because of impersonality, the people of the city do not want to get involved in other people’s affairs, hence remain indifferent towards other people. This is also proved by these lines of ‘Bashir Badr’.
“No one will even shake hands who will embrace you with austerity,
This is a city of new mood, just meet with a distance. “
The picture of transport and traffic in the cities of India is unsatisfactory. The increasing number of cars, motorcycles etc. has made the traffic problem more dire. The smoke coming out of these vehicles pollutes the air. In addition, the number of buses or metro plying for daily commuters is not sufficient in big cities, due to which people have to wait for hours for vehicles. Also, their valuable time is wasted due to traffic disruption.
The impact of urbanization on health.
Municipalities and corporations in Indian cities are so engrossed in malpractices that they are interested in everything else, but in cleanliness, especially garbage removal, cleaning the drains and clearing the blockages in the sewers. Due to the expansion of illegal slums in congested urban areas and the lack of civic sense among the people living in them, there are piles of filth all around, which invite diseases.
In most cities of India, about 40-60% of the total sewage effluent and industrial, waste water is discharged into nearby rivers without purification. Even in small towns, through open drains, the filth is drained into the nearby river or drain. Urban factories pollute the environment by releasing smoke and foul gases from their chimneys. Due to the increasing number of vehicles in cities day by day, air pollution also increases significantly. High level of pollution invites many diseases.
Solving the problem of urbanization.
At present, due to unequally developing cities, the problem of pollution etc. in the country and lack of proper and cheap transport facility from home to workplace, good housing, availability of clean air and water, etc., only by the State Governments and local bodies. The local residents will also have to be active effectively for the revival of their settlements, without being dependent on them